Now updated for CSW19. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.
|the beginning of a sentence, line, or clause with the concluding, or any prominent, word of the one preceding > ANADIPLOSES.
|of or belonging to ANALOGY.
|ANALOG ANALOGUE ANALOGON
|that which is analogous to, or corresponds with, some other thing > ANALOGONS or ANALOGA.
|a figure of speech involving a comparison.
|repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences or verses especially for rhetorical effect. [Gk. anaphora, a carrying back or reference, from ana back, and pherein to bear].
|of or like ANAPHORA, repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases etc.
|referring to a preceding word or group of words.
|an inversion of the usual syntactical order of words for rhetorical effect e.g. 'To market went she'.
|repetition of words or ideas in different order.
|inversion of the members of an antithesis, as in Crabbe's 'A poem is a speaking picture; a picture, a mute poem' > ANTIMETATHESES.
|the humorous or ironic use of a word or a phrase in a sense opposite of its usual meaning > ANTIPHRASES. For example: "Brutus is an honorable man".
|the repetition of words in reverse order.
|the contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangement of words or clauses > ANTITHESES.
|constituting or marked by ANTITHESIS > ANTITHETICALLY.
|necessarily true; beyond contradiction. 'Martin's writing is apodictic in tone, reflecting his complete confidence in the correctness of his statements.' [Greek deiknynai, to show].
|the rhetorical device of emphasizing a fact, by pretending to ignore or deny it > APOPHASES.
|emphasizing a fact by pretending to ignore or deny it.
|relating to APORIA, a professed doubt of what to say or to choose.
|a professed doubt of what to say or to choose: 'to be or not to be'.
|a conscious breaking off in the middle of a sentence because of emotion, a dramatic change in thought, or, sometimes, a shifting to understatement or irony > APOSIOPESES.
|a sudden turning away from the ordinary course of a speech to address some person or object present or absent.
|logical argument, proof > ARGUMENTA or ARGUMENTUMS.
|urbane irony, polite mockery. [Gk. asty, asteos a town; seen as a place of refinement].
|the omission of conjunctions, as in 'I came, I saw, I conquered' > ASYNDETA or ASYNDETONS.
|expression characterized by conciseness and elegance.
|an ordering of thoughts expressed in a sequence of ascending importance > AUXESES. [Gk. auxesis, increase].
|a needless repetition of words in speaking or writing.
|a general term for abbreviated or condensed expression, of which ASYNDETON and ZEUGMA are types.
|the use of an expression which refers to or stands for a later word or group of words.
|relating to CHIASMUS, the inversion of order of corresponding elements of two parallel phrases.
|inversion of order of corresponding elements of two parallel phrases, as 'do not live to eat but eat to live' > CHIASMI.
|an indirect or roundabout course, esp. in speaking or writing > circumlocution.
|a roundabout manner of speaking.
|a figure of speech by which arguments, after having been considered from various points of view, are all brought to bear upon one point; also a mineral, a brown, green or grey form of AUGITE. [Gk. diallage, interchange].
|(in an oration) the narration of the facts > DIEGESES.
|related to DIEGESIS.
|a comparison or illustration by contraries.
|the substitution of a disagreeable or offensive expression for an agreeable or inoffensive one, e.g. The Holocaust (the dysphemism chosen by Jewish historians to replace the Nazis' euphemism, The Final Solution).
|a digression; (Mus.) the sharpening of a tone.
|rhetorical exclamation > ECPHONESES.
|a description of a work of art as rhetorical exercise > EKPHRASES.
|relating to argument, cross-examination or refuting.
|the rhetorical device of stating the opposite of what is meant, usually ironically; affirmation by contraries > ENANTIOSES.
|an argument of probability only.
|a figure by which a sentence begins and ends with the same word, e.g. 'Rejoice in the Lord alway, and again I say, rejoice' > EPANADIPLOSES.
|repetition or resumption with the same words > EPANALEPSES.
|a recapitulation of the chief points in a discourse after digression > EPANODOSES.
|the retracting of a statement in order to correct or intensify it, e.g. 'For Britain's guid! for her destruction!' > EPANORTHOSES.
|rhetorically demonstrative (showing off).
|an exclamation, finishing phrase or reflection > EPIPHONEMAS.
|the repetition of a word or expression at the end of successive phrases, clauses, sentences or verses especially for rhetorical or poetic effect e.g. 'government of the people, by the people, for the people'.
|the immediate repetition of a word for emphasis > EPIZEUXES or EPIZEUXISES.
|EROTEMA EROTEME EROTESIS
|a rhetorical question > EROTESES.
|engaging in or pertaining to rhetorical questioning.
|to speak or write (of) euphemistically.
|one who EUPHEMISES.
|a figure of rhetoric by which an unpleasant or offensive thing is described or referred to by a milder term e.g. 'the beautiful game' for football.
|one who engages in EUPHEMISM.
|the custom of using pleasing sounding words.
|to write in a euphuistic style.
|artificial elegance of language.
|one who affects excessive refinement and elegance of language.
|in the manner of a EUPHUIST > EUPHUISTICALLY.
|wit, ease and urbanity of conversation.
|the expression of an idea by two nouns connected by and (as cups and gold) instead of by a noun and an adjective (as golden cups) > HENDIADYSES.
|divine inspiration in oratory.
|a rhetorical figure in which relations between words are changed.
|the use, especially for emphasis, of a word order other than the expected or usual one, as in "Bird thou never wert.'
|impression by extravagant exaggeration.
|the anticipation and refutal of objections to an argument.
|the expression of an affirmative by the negative of the contrary, e.g. not a little angry. [L. from Gk. litos, simple, meagre].
|of or like LITOTES, expressing an affirmative by the negative of the contrary.
|understatement as a figure of speech; (biol.) a two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms > MEIOSES. [Gk. meiosis, diminution].
|exhibiting MEIOSIS, deliberate understatement > MEIOTICALLY.
|a transition, e.g. from one subject or point to another > METABASES.
|metonymy, esp of a double, complicated, or indirect kind > METALEPSES.
|of or pertaining to a METALEPSIS.
|implied comparison achieved through a figurative use of words.
|casual mention of a subject as if it were unimportant; responding to a person's criticism or insult with a riposte that uses or plays on his or her words.
|a word used in METONYMY, e.g. 'the ring' to mean 'boxing'.
|realting to METONYMY > METONYMICALLY.
|the figurative use of a word for another closely associated with it, especially of attribute for its subject (as the crown for the sovereign or monarchy).
|the naming of a thing or action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it.
|relating to ONOMATOPOEIA.
|= ONOMATOPOEIA > ONOMATOPOESES, ONOMATOPOIESES.
|an apparent paradox achieved by the juxtaposition of words which seem to contradict one another > OXYMORONS or OXYMORA. [Gk. neuter of oxymoros, literally, pointedly foolish, from oxys sharp + moros, foolish].
|of or like an OXYMORON.
|a similitude; a comparison.
|an apparent contradiction which may nevertheless be true.
|relating to PARADOX.
|one who engages in PARADOX.
|a figure of speech which implies something more serious by deliberately concise treatment (e.g. 'I don't have time to mention Representative Jones's other faults.') > PARALEIPSES, PARALIPSES. Cf. APOPHASIS.
|the juxtaposition of clauses or phrases without the use of coordinating or subordinating conjunctions, as 'It was cold; the snows came' > PARATAXES. [Gk, from paratassein, to arrange side by side].
|an exhortation > PARENESES.
|freedom or boldness of speech. [From NL, from Gk, from para, beyond + rhesis, speech].
|the use of more words than are necessary to express the idea; a roundabout, or indirect, way of speaking; circumlocution.
|using longer phrasing in place of shorter form of expression.
|pertaining to circumlocution or to one who is wordy.
|superfluity of words, pleonasm.
|the attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
|a short form of petitio principii, a form of fallacious reasoning in which the conclusion has been assumed in the premises; begging the question.
|a peroration; a resume in conclusion; (verb) to give such a resume.
|the use of more words than necessary.
|one who practises PLEONASM.
|using redundant words.
|a controversial discussion or attack. [Gk. polemikos, from polemos, war].
|related to POLEMICS, debate > POLEMICALLY.
|the rhetorical device of repeating a conjunction for emphasis: 'it was red and yellow and pink and orange and blue!'.
|a rhetorical device of weakening objections by anticipating them > PROLEPSES.
|a figure of speech in which an imaginary or absent person is represented as speaking or acting.
|one who practises RHETORIC.
|the theory and practice of eloquence, whether spoken or written, the whole art of using language so as to persuade others.
|relating to thetoric; of a question, not meant to be answered.
|to use rhetorical language.
|an explicit comparison between two things using 'like' or 'as'.
|an argument apparently correct in form but actually invalid; esp such an argument used to deceive.
|a string of statements where the end of one is the subject of the next. [Gk. soreites, from soros, a heap]. N.B. no SORITE*.
|of or pertaining to a SORITES, a string of statements where the end of one is the subject of the next.
|a construction in which a word governs two or more other words but agrees in number, gender, or case with only one, or has a different meaning when applied to each of the words, as in 'He lost his coat and his temper' > SYLLEPSES.
|relating to SYLLEPSIS, a construction in which a word governs two or more other words.
|the repetition of a word at the start of one and end of the next clause, e.g. 'the memory that each cycle of the tide is valid, each cycle of the wave is valid, each cycle of a relationship is valid'. [Gk. symploke, an interweaving].
|a concession, esp one made for the sake of a more effective retort > SYNCHORESES,
|a confused arrangement of words in a sentence, obscuring the meaning > SYNCHYSES.
|a figure of speech by which a part is used for the whole (as fifty sail for fifty ships), or the whole for a part (as the smiling year for spring).
|the rhetorical figure of coupling opposites.
|the needless repetition of an idea, statement or word; a redundant (tautologous) statement.
|the theme or subject of a declamation or discourse; a thesis > THEMATA.
|a stock theme or topic > TOPOI.
|a figure of speech; a word or phrase interpreted as an embellishment in sung parts of certain medieval liturgies; (verb) to provide with tropes.
|the use of metaphors in writing or speaking.
|the literary device of using word to modify two other words with only one of which it is correctly used, or makes a different kind of sense with each > ZEUGMAS. [Gk., from zeugnynai, to yoke].
|of or pertaining to ZEUGMA, the literary device of using word to modify two other words with only one of which it is correctly used > ZEUGMATICALLY.