Association of British Scrabble Players

Landscape & Landforms

aa a type of lava.
acclivity an upward slope.
aftershock an earthquake that follows and has its epicenter near a larger earthquake.
aiguille a needle-like peak of rock.
ait a small island.
alluvial relating to running water activities or deposits; (noun) soil composed of ALLUVIUM.
alluvion alluvium land gradually gained from the sea by the washing up of sand and earth. [L. alluvio].
alp a mountain.
altiplano a high plateau in Andes > ALTIPLANOS.
anaclinal of valleys, progressing in a direction opposite to the dip of the surrounding rock strata.
antar antre a cave.
anticlinal an anticlinal fold, axis, crest, or line; a line whence strata dip in opposite directions.
anticline a fold that is convex upward, or that had such an attitude at some stage of its development. Compare SYNCLINE.
anticlinorium an arch-shaped group of anticlines and synclines > ANTICLINORIUMS.
antidune a sandhill that forms a steep slope against the direction of the prevailing current.
antre see ANTAR.
archipelago a chain or set of islands grouped together > ARCHIPELAGOS or ARCHIPELAGOES. [Ital. arcipelago, principal sea, referring to the Aegean].
areic of an area of the earth with little surface drainage.
arete a narrow, saw-toothed mountain ridge developed by glacier erosion in adjacent cirques.
arroyo a dry desert gully > ARROYOS.
as (noun) a gravel ridge or KAME > pl. ASAR; a Norse god > pl. AESIR; a Roman coin > pl. ASSES.
aseismic free from earthquakes; designed to withstand earthquakes.
ashfall volcanic ash.
atoll a roughly circular reef with an occasional small, low, coral sand island surrounding a shallow lagoon.
avalanche a generic term for any slide of snow, ice, and debris.
backcountry a remote rural region.
backveld country remote from towns.
badland a barren, hilly area.
bahada bajada a broad, sloping depositional deposit caused by the coalescing of alluvial fans.
bankside the slope of a bank, especially of the bank of a steam.
barchan barchane barkan barkhan a crescent-shaped dune.
barranca barranco a ravine caused by heavy rains or a watercourse.
barren devoid of vegetation > BARRENER, BARRENEST; BARRENLY; (noun) a desert > BARRENS.
bayou the marshy offshoot of a lake or river. [Choctaw bayou, little river].
beach the shore of a sea or of a lake, esp when sandy or pebbly; (verb) to drive ashore > BEACHES, BEACHING, BEACHED.
beachside situated at the side of a beach.
beachy having a beach or beaches > BEACHIER, BEACHIEST.
ben a mountain > BENS.
benchland a former wave-cut shore of a sea or lake.
benchy of a hillside, hollowed out in benches > BENCHIER, BENCHIEST.
berg a hill or mountain in S. Africa.
bergfall a fall of mountain rock.
bergmehl a powdery deposit of diatom frustules. [Ger. = 'mountain flour'].
bergschrund a crevasse formed where a glacier or snowfield moves away from a mountain wall.
blowout an irregular depression excavated by wind, usually in previously deposited blown sand.
bog a marsh; (verb) to sink > BOGS, BOGGING, BOGGED.
bogginess the state of being BOGGY.
boggish boggy.
boggy like a bog > BOGGIER, BOGGIEST.
bogland marshland.
bolson a basin-shaped depression surrounded by mountains, esp. in the southern US and Mexico.
bombora a submerged reef; a dangerous current over this.
bommie an outcrop of coral reef.
boonies remote, undeveloped country.
boschveld bushveld veld made up largely of woodland.
bottomset as in bottomset bed, fine sediment deposited at the foot of a growing delta. No —S.
bouldery of a landscape, characterized by boulders.
bradyseism a slow up-and-down movement of the earth's crust.
brae a steep bank beside a river valley; a hillside.
braeheid the summit of a hill or slope.
brushland an area covered with brush growth.
bundu a remote uncultivated region > BUNDUS.
bushland land covered by bush.
bushveld see BOSCHVELD.
butte an isolated hill rising abruptly from the surrounding area, having steep sides and a flat top.
cajon a steep canyon > CAJONES. [Sp. cajon, box].
caldera a large, basin-shaped volcanic depression, more or less circular in form > CALDERAS.
callow unfledged; inexperienced > CALLOWER, CALLOWEST; (noun) an alluvial flat > CALLOWS.
campagna an open level tract of country; especially "Campagna di Roma", the extensive undulating plain which surrounds Rome > CAMPAGNAS or CAMPAGNE.
campo an area of open grassland in S. America > CAMPI or CAMPOS.
canada a narrow canyon (the n has a tilde) > CANADAS.
canyon a deep gorge or ravine. [Sp cañón, a hollow, from root of cannon].
carse (a stretch of) alluvial lowland beside a river.
cataclinal running in the direction of the dip of the surrounding rock strata.
cave a hollow in a rock; (verb) to hollow out > CAVES, CAVING, CAVED.
cavern to hollow out as in a cavern > CAVERNS, CAVERNING, CAVERNED.
cay a low islet.
cenote a deep natural hole in the ground with a pool at the bottom, esp. in the Yucatan peninsula, often used by the Mayas as a place of sacrifice.
cerrado an area of wooded savanna in S. America.
champaign an expanse of level, open country, a plain.
chasm a deep cleft in the earth.
chasmal chasmic of or like a chasm.
chasmed having CHASMS.
chasmy of or pertaining to a chasm; abounding in chasms > CHASMIER, CHASMIEST.
chersonese a PENINSULA.
chott shott a shallow saline lake of northern Africa; the dried bed of such a lake.
cirque a bowl-shaped depression on a mountain that is carved out by an Alpine glacier.
cleeve cleve a cliff, a hillside.
cleuch cleugh clough a ravine.
cleve see CLEEVE.
cliff a high, steep face of rock.
cliffed having CLIFFS.
clifflike like a CLIFF.
cliffy having cliffs; craggy > CLIFFIER, CLIFFIEST.
clift a cliff.
clifted broken into cliffs.
clifty broken into cliffs > CLIFTIER, CLIFTIEST.
clint a block in a limestone pavement.
clough see CLEUCH.
coastal pertaining to or located near a seashore.
coastland land along the coast.
coastline the line or boundary of a coast.
col a pass in a mountain range.
combe coomb coombe a deep hollow or valley, esp. on the side of a hill; a valley running up from the sea.
copple something rising in a conical shape; specifically, a hill rising to a point.
corcass in Ireland, a salt-marsh, or land susceptible to flooding by a river. [Irish corcach].
cordillera a mountain ridge or chain.
cordilleran relating to a CORDILLERA, a mountain ridge or chain.
corrie a round hollow in a hillside.
coseismal (a line) connecting points simultaneously affected by an earthquake > COSEISMALS.
coseismic (a place) experiencing an earthquake shock simultaneously > COSEISMICS.
coste (Spenser) coast.
coteau uplands; higher ground of a region > COTEAUX.
coulee a lava-flow; a rocky ravine.
couloir a steep mountainside gorge. [Fr. couloir, corridor].
cove a small inlet of the sea, a bay; (verb) to form or provide with an architectural cove > COVES, COVING, COVED.
covelet a small cove.
crag craig a rough steep rock.
cragged full of crags, or steep, broken rocks.
craggedness the state of being CRAGGED, full of crags.
craggily (adv.) CRAGGY, rugged, full of crags.
craggy rugged, full of crags.
craig see CRAG.
crater the bowl-like mouth of a volcano; also a large two-handled bowl for mixing wine. (Verb) to make a crater in > CRATERS, CRATERING, CRATERED.
craterlet a small crater.
craterous pertaining to, or resembling, a crater.
craton a large, relatively stable section of earth's crust, forming the basis of a continent or ocean. [Gk. kratos, strength].
cratonic relating to a CRATON, a large, relatively stable section of earth's crust.
creston an outcrop.
crevasse a deep crevice or open fracture in glacier ice; (verb) to make a crevasse in > CREVASSES, CREVASSING, CREVASSED.
cuesta a geological feature > gentle slope on one side, cliff on the other.
cutbank a steep stream bank.
cwm a Welsh word for valley.
dale a valley.
dargle a dell.
debouchure the mouth of a river or strait.
deglaciated showing DEGLACIATION. N.B. no DEGLACIATE*.
deglaciation the melting of ice due to the retreat of a glacier.
dell a small, retired valley; a ravine.
delta the often triangular-shaped alluvial deposition area at the mouth of a river.
deltaic deltic relating to a DELTA.
dene a sandy tract or dune by the seashore.
desert a barren area; (verb) to abandon.
desertic arid and barren.
diapir an anticlinal fold in which the overlying rock has been pierced by material from beneath. [Gk. diapeirainein, to pierce].
diapiric of or like DIAPIR.
diluvial diluvian of, relating to, or brought about by a flood. [L. diluere, to wash away].
dimble a deep and shady dell, a dingle > DIMBLES.
dingle a dell.
djebel jebel a hill, a range of mountains.
doab a tongue or tract of land included between two rivers; as, the doab between the Ganges and the Jumna. [Persian do-ab, two waters].
dolina doline a typically funnel-shaped basin in a karstic region.
donga a gully made by soil erosion.
downland a rolling treeless upland.
drumlin a long hill formed by glacial retreat.
dryland relating to land as opposed to sea. No —S.
dune a hill of sand.
duneland an area of dunes.
dunelike like a dune.
earthfall a landslide.
earthquake a quaking or shaking of the earth.
earthquaked shaken or destroyed by an earthquake.
ejecta material ejected e.g. from a volcano. No —S.
embayment a bay; a recess in a coastline forming a bay.
embog to bog down > EMBOGS, EMBOGGING, EMBOGGED.
englacial embedded in, carried in or running through a glacier.
englacially (adv.) ENGLACIAL.
epicenter epicentre epicentrum the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the focus of an earthquake.
eremic of or belonging to deserts.
erg a Saharan area of shifting sand dunes > ERGS or AREG.
erupt to break out or through, e.g. of a volcano > ERUPTS, ERUPTING, ERUPTED.
eruption the action of a volcano.
escar eskar esker a long narrow ridge of gravel deposited by a glacial stream.
escarp a scarp or sudden slope; (verb) to make into a scarp > ESCARPS, ESCARPING, ESCARPED.
everglade a swampy grassland, esp. in southern Florida.
eyot a small island in a river.
fen low marshy land.
fenland marshy ground.
fennish abounding in fens; fenny.
fenny like a fen > FENNIER, FENNIEST; (noun) a kind of drink > FENNIES.
fiord fjord a coastal valley which was sculpted by glacial action.
firn granular ice formed by the recrystallization of snow. [Ger. firn, of last year]. Aka NEVE.
firth a fjord, inlet.
fjeld a high, barren Scandinavian plateau.
fjord see FIORD.
fjordic of or like a FJORD.
flatland land lacking significant variation in elevation.
floodplain an area bordering a stream over which water spreads when the stream tops its channel banks.
flybelt a belt of country infested by tsetse fly.
foothill a minor elevation below a higher mountain or range.
foreland a headland.
foreshock a minor tremor that precedes an earthquake.
foreshore that part of the shore that lies between the low and high tide marks.
fumarole fumerole a hole in a volcanic region from which hot gases and vapors issue.
fumarolic of or like a FUMAROLE, a hole in a volcanic region from which hot gases and vapors issue.
fumerole see FUMAROLE.
fynbos in South Africa, an area of low shrubs > FYNBOSES. [Dutch fijn, fine + bosch, bush]. N.B. no FYNBO*.
garigue garrigue an uncultivated open scrubland of the Mediterranean region.
geanticline a large upward fold.
geest alluvial matter on the surface of land, not of recent origin.
geo gio goe a gully or creek.
geodynamic pertaining to forces within the earth.
geodynamics the study of GEODYNAMIC forces.
geyser a type of thermal spring which ejects water intermittently with considerable force.
ghat ghaut (in India) a mountain pass; a landing stage; a place for cremation.
ghilgai gilgai a saucer-shaped depression forming a natural reservoir.
ghyll a narrow ravine.
gilgai see GHILGAI.
gio see GEO.
glacial very cold > GLACIALLY; (noun) a glacial period > GLACIALS.
glacialist one who attributes the phenomena of the drift, in geology, to glaciers.
glaciation the formation, advance and retreat of glaciers and the results of these activities.
glacier a huge mass of ice > GLACIERS, GLACIERED.
glaciered having a GLACIER or glaciers.
glaciology the study of ice ages and glaciation.
glen a narrow valley with a stream, often with trees.
glenlike like a GLEN.
goe see GEO.
goyle (dial.) a ravine.
graben a rift valley.
grassland a habitat dominated by grass.
grike gryke a crevice in a limestone pavement. [ON kriki, a crack].
grot a grotto.
grotto a cavern > GROTTOES or GROTTOS; GROTTOED.
grottoed having a GROTTO.
grough a deep gully in a peat moor area.
gryke see GRIKE.
gumlands in Australia, infertile land from which the original kauri gum has been removed or burnt. N.B. no GUMLAND*.
guyot a flat-topped underwater mountain of volcanic origin. [From A H Guyot, Swiss-born American geologist].
hag hagg broken ground in a moss or bog, a place from which peat has been dug.
hamada hammada a desert plateau of bedrock.
haugh a low-lying meadow by the side of a river.
headland a cape; a promontory.
heath an area of land covered with heath or heather, an evergreen shrub.
heathland barren open country, esp covered with ericaceous and other low shrubs.
heathless without heath.
heathlike like a heath.
heathy covered with heath; of the nature of heath > HEATHIER, HEATHIEST.
heuch heugh a crag, a steep-sided valley.
highland an elevated region.
highveld a high altitude grassland region of E. South Africa.
hill a high mass of land, smaller than a mountain; (verb) to rise into a mound > HILLS, HILLING, HILLED.
hillcrest the top of a hill.
hilliness the state of being HILLY.
hillock a small hill.
hillocked having HILLOCKS.
hillocky full of HILLOCKS.
hillside the side of a hill.
hillslope the slope of a hill.
hilltop the top of a hill.
hilly like a hill > HILLIER, HILLIEST.
hoe hogh a promontory.
hogback an eroded, steeply tilted ridge of resistant rocks with equal slopes on the sides, aka SOWBACK.
holm a river island.
hommock a ridge in an ice field.
hornito a low volcanic mound > HORNITOS.
horst horste a mass of the earth's crust that lies between two faults and is higher than the surrounding land. [From MHG hurst, thicket].
hummock a pile or ridge of ice; (verb) to make hummocks on > HUMMOCKS, HUMMOCKING, HUMMOCKED.
hypocenter hypocentre the point on the earth directly below where the energy of an earthquake is released.
icecap a small ice sheet.
icecapped having an ICECAP, a small ice sheet.
icefall a steep part of a glacier resembling a frozen waterfall; an avalanche of ice.
icefield an expanse of ice e.g. on a glacier.
inselberg a steep-sided round-topped mount, usu. of granite or gneiss, rising above the general level of plain eroded bedrock > INSELBERGE or INSELBERGS. [Ger. 'island mountain']. Aka MONADNOCK.
interfluve an area between two rivers that flow in the same direction.
interfluvial between two rivers flowing in same direction.
intervale a low level tract of land, esp. along a river.
intraplate relating to or occurring within the interior of a tectonic plate, e.g. an INTRAPLATE earthquake.
island a mass of land (not a continent) surrounded with water; (verb) to set or dot with or as with islands > ISLANDS, ISLANDING, ISLANDED.
islet a small island.
isleted having ISLETS.
isoseismal a line connecting points of same earthquake intensity.
isoseismic relating to an ISOSEISMAL, a line connecting points of same earthquake intensity.
isthmic isthmoid of or like an ISTHMUS.
isthmus a narrow neck of land joining two land masses > ISTHMI or ISTHMUSES.
jebel see DJEBEL.
jungle land covered with dense tropical vegetation.
jungled abounding in JUNGLE.
jungly of or relating to jungles > JUNGLIER, JUNGLIEST.
kaim kame a comb; a ridge or mound of sand and gravel deposited on or near a glacier.
karoo karroo a high inland pastoral tableland.
karst a landscape composed of limestone features including sinkholes, caves, and underground streams.
karstic of or like KARST, a landscape composed of limestone features including sinkholes, caves, and underground streams.
karstification the process of becoming KARSTIFIED.
karstify to make into KARST, a landscape composed of limestone features including sinkholes, caves, and underground streams > KARSTIFIES, KARSTIFYING, KARSTIFIED.
khor a dry watercourse; a ravine. [Arabic khurr, khorr].
khud in India, a pit, hollow, ravine.
kipp anything beaked; a pointed hill.
kloof a deep ravine in South Africa.
knickpoint nickpoint a break of slope in a river profile, esp. where a new curve of erosion arising from rejuvenation intersects an earlier curve.
knoll a small hill; (verb) an obsolete form of KNELL > KNOLLS, KNOLLING, KNOLLED.
knowe a small hill, a knoll.
kop a South African word for hill.
kopje koppie in S. Africa, a low hill.
kyle a narrow strait. [Gaelic caol, narrow].
lahar a mudflow composed chiefly of pyroclastic material on the flanks of a volcano.
laich low; a piece of low-lying ground; a hollow > LAICHS (not LAICHES*).
laigh low > LAIGHER, LAIGHEST; (noun) a piece of low-lying ground; a hollow > LAIGHS.
lakefront the front of a lake.
lakeland scenery with lakes.
lande a heathy plain or sandy tract, esp. in S.W. France.
landform a geological feature.
landmass a large continuous area of land, as opposed to seas or islands.
landscape the appearance of the area of land which the eye can view at once.
landskip landscape > LANDSKIPS. Also LANTSKIP. (Verb) to landscape > LANDSKIPS, LANDSKIPPING, LANDSKIPPED.
landslip the fall of a mass of earth.
lantskip see LANDSKIP.
lapillus a small stone ejected by volcanic eruption > LAPILLI.
lauwine lawine an avalanche.
lava magma that has been extruded out on to the earth's surface.
lavaform like lava.
lavalike like lava.
lawine see LAUWINE.
liman the deposit of slime at the mouth of a river; slime.
litoral pertaining to or on the seashore.
littoral pertaining to or on seashore; (noun) a shore region.
llano an extensive plain with or without vegetation > LLANOS.
logan a rocking-stone.
lowland an area of land lying lower than the adjacent country.
lowveld the lower altitude areas of the eastern Transvaal.
maar a volcanic crater without a cone, usually filled by a lake > MAARS or MAARE.
machair a low-lying sandy beach, esp. in the Hebrides.
magma molten or partially molten rock material > MAGMAS or MAGMATA.
magmatic of or like MAGMA, molten or partially molten rock material.
mamelon a rounded hill or protuberance. [Fr. mamelon, nipple].
maremma a marsh; a miasma; an Italian sheepdog > MAREMMAS or MAREMME.
marish low, wet ground; a marsh; a fen.
marsh a tract of low, wet land.
marshland low poorly drained land that is sometimes flooded and often lies at the edge of lakes, streams, etc.
marshlike like a MARSH.
maskeg muskeg a swamp, bog or marsh. [Cree maskek].
massif a large mountain-mass; a compact group of mountain heights.
merse a low flat marshland.
mesa a flat-topped hill.
meseta a plateau, esp. that of central Spain.
microquake a very small earthquake.
microseism a small earth tremor.
microseismic microseismical relating to a MICROSEISM, a small earth tremor.
mire mud; (verb) to bog down > MIRES, MIRING, MIRED.
mofette moffette a volcanic opening in the earth emitting carbon dioxide.
molasse soft sediment produced by the erosion of mountain ranges in the final stage of mountain building > MOLASSES.
monadnock a mountain or rocky mass that has resisted erosion and stands isolated in an essentially level area. [From Mount Monadnock, a peak of southwest New Hampshire]. Aka INSELBERG.
montane mountainous; mountain-dwelling; (noun) the lowest vegetation belt of a mountain.
monticle a little hill.
monticule a secondary volcanic cone.
monticulus a little hill > MONTICULUSES.
moorish having the characteristics of a moor or heath.
moorland a tract of marshy land > MOORLANDS.
moory of or pertaining to moors > MOORIER, MOORIEST.
morainal of or like a MORAINE.
moraine a landform made largely of glacial till.
morainic of or pertaining to a MORAINE, a landform made largely of glacial till.
morass a very wet or muddy area of ground.
morassy marshy; fenny.
morro a rounded hill or headland > MORROS.
mossland wet, peaty land.
motu a small reef island in the Pacific > MOTUS.
moulin a nearly vertical, cylindrical shaft or cavity worn in a glacier, carved by melted surface water falling through a crack in the ice. [Fr. moulin, mill].
mountain a large, natural elevation of the earth's surface.
mountained having mountains.
mountainous having mountains.
mountainousness the state of being MOUNTAINOUS.
mountainy mountainous.
moutonnee of a rock, rounded by the action of a glacier.
moya volcanic mud.
mudflat a level tract alternately covered and left bare by the tide.
mudhole a place that stays damp and muddy.
muir a moor.
muskeg see MASKEG.
nala nalla nallah nulla nullah in India, a ravine, a watercourse.
naze a headland or cape.
nek a col, a pass in a mountain range.
ness a headland.
neve old compressed snow, aka FIRN.
nickpoint see KNICKPOINT.
nondesert not related to or living in a desert.
noup in the Shetlands, a crag, a steep headland.
nulla see NALA.
nullah see NALA.
nunatak a point of rock appearing above the surface of land ice > NUNATAKS or (Swedish) NUNATAKER. [Inupiaq (Greenlandic) nunataq.]
oasis a fertile spot in a desert > OASES.
oreographic relating to OREOGRAPHY, the science of mountains.
oreography orography the science of mountains.
oreological relating to OREOLOGY.
oreologist orologist one versed in OREOLOGY, the study of mountains.
oreology orology the study of mountains.
orogen an orogenic belt, a mountain-forming area > OROGENS.
orogenesis mountain-building.
orogenic relating to the formation of mountains.
orogeny the process of mountain making, esp. by folding of the earth's crust.
orographer one who practises OROGRAPHY, the science of mountains.
orographic showing heights.
orography see OREOGRAPHY.
orologist see OREOLOGIST.
orology see OREOLOGY.
ose an esker, a narrow ridge of gravel and sand.
outback the remote, uncultivated, and usu. uninhabited inland districts of Australia; any remote or sparsely populated region.
outcrop any place where bedrock is visible on the surface of the Earth; (verb) to form an outcrop > OUTCROPS, OUTCROPPING, OUTCROPPED.
outwash beds of sand and gravel laid down by glacial melt water.
overfold a fold tilted over so that the dip on both sides of the axis is in the same direction; (verb) of folded strata > to be pushed beyond the vertical, so as to form an overfold.
overwash material carried by glacier streams over a frontal moraine.
oxbow a pronounced meander or horseshoe-shaped loop in a river; the land included within such a loop.
padi paddy a rice field.
pahoehoe a hardened lava with a smooth or ropy surface. Cf. AA.
pakahi acid land unfit for cultivation > PAKAHIS.
pakihi an area of swampy infertile land > PAKIHIS.
paludal paludic paludinal paludine paludinous of marshes.
paludose paludous marshy; living in marshes.
palustral palustrian palustrine of marshes, inhabiting marshes.
pampa a vast treeless plain in S. America > PAMPAS. [Quechua = a plain].
paramo a bare wind-swept elevated plain in South America > PARAMOS.
peak the top of a mountain; (verb) to reach a maximum > PEAKS, PEAKING, PEAKED.
peakish of or relating to a peak.
peatary peatery petary a region, bog or moor covered with peat.
peatland an area of land consisting of peat bogs.
peneplain peneplane a low gently, rolling landscape produced by long-continued erosion.
peninsula a strip of land jutting out into water, a near-island.
periglacial bordering a glacier.
phrygana an uncultivated open scrubland of the Mediterranean region, aka GARIGUE > PHRYGANAS.
picacho an isolated peak of a hill > PICACHOS.
piedmont an area of land formed or lying at the foot of a mountain or mountain range. [From Piedmont in Italy].
pindan a desert region of Western Australia.
pineland land on which pine trees grow.
pingo a cone-shaped mound with an ice core > PINGOS or PINGOES. [Inupiaq pinguq nunatak].
plateau a flat highland > PLATEAUX; (verb) to level out > PLATEAUS, PLATEAUING, PLATEAUED.
playa a basin which becomes a shallow lake after heavy rain, and dries out again.
pocosen+ pocosin pocoson an upland swamp of the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S.
poechore a semiarid region.
polder an area of low-lying land reclaimed from a body of water (esp. in the Netherlands); (verb) to reclaim low-lying land > POLDERS, POLDERING, POLDERED.
polje a large elliptical depression in karst regions, sometimes containing a marsh or lake.
poort a mountain pass.
pothole a hole or basin cut into bedrock of a stream by the abrasive action of pebbles and sand swirled by turbulent stream flow; (verb) to explore (limestone potholes) > POTHOLES, POTHOLING, POTHOLED.
prairie an extensive tract of treeless grassland, esp. in N. America.
prairied having prairies.
precepit a precipice.
precipice a high vertical or nearly vertical cliff or rock face.
puy a small volcanic cone.
pyroclast ash and other debris ejected by a volcano.
quag a quagmire.
quaggy boggy, like a quagmire > QUAGGIER, QUAGGIEST.
quagmire a bog; (verb) to be sunk or stuck in a quagmire > QUAGMIRES, QUAGMIRING, QUAGMIRED.
quicksand a loose watery sand which swallows up anyone who walks on it.
rambla a dry ravine; a broad avenue esp in Barcelona.
ravine a narrow, steep-sided valley.
ravined scored with ravines, trenched.
reedbed a stand of reeds.
reefy full of reefs or rocks > REEFIER, REEFIEST.
ria a drowned valley.
ridgeline a line marking or following a ridge.
rillmark a marking produced by water running down a bank or beach.
rimaye a BERGSCHRUND, a crevasse formed where a glacier or snowfield moves away from a mountain wall.
rimland an outlying land.
riparial pertaining to or on river bank.
riva in Shetland, a cleft in rock. [ON rifa].
rivage shore; bank.
riverbank the bank of a river.
riverside the area at the side of a river.
riviera a warm coastal district.
rockslide a fall of rocks down a hillside.
rognon an isolated rock outcrop on a glacier.
sabkha sabkhah sabkhat a broad, salt-encrusted coastal plain above the level of normal tides.
salina a salt lagoon.
salse a mud volcano.
salting an area of land regularly flooded by tides.
sandbank a large mass of sand.
sandbar a sandbank, esp. formed at the mouth of a river or harbour.
sandhill a hill of sand.
sault a leap; a waterfall or rapid in some rivers; as, the Sault Ste. Marie.
savanna savannah tropical grassland.
scabland an area of bare, usu. volcanic rock in the N. W. US that has been deeply channelled by glacial meltwater.
scarping a steep slope; the rocky face of a hill.
scaw skaw a low cape or headland
scoria a slag-like mass of lava > SCORIAE.
scrubland land covered by scrub.
seabank a bank beside the sea.
seabeach a beach lying along the sea.
seaboard the line where land and sea meet, the coastline.
seacoast the shore or border of the land adjacent to the sea or ocean.
seamount a volcanic mountain on the seafloor. If flat-topped, it is a GUYOT.
seashore land bordering on the sea.
seaside the seashore.
seastrand the seashore.
sedgeland land where sedge grows.
seif a long sand-dune lying parallel to the direction of the wind that forms it > SEIFS. [Arabic sayf, sword].
seism an earthquake.
seismal seismic seismical relating to earthquakes.
seismicity degree of vulnerability to earthquakes.
seismism seismic phenomena collectively.
seismograph instrument for recording earthquakes.
seismology the study of earthquakes.
seismometer instrument for measuring earthquake intensity.
seismoscope an instrument for detecting earthquakes.
semicirque a semicircular hollow or opening among trees or hills.
serac a large mass of ice broken off a glacier and remaining behind in a crevasse.
shore the seaward edge of coast between low tide and effective wave action; (verb) to prop up > SHORES, SHORING, SHORED.
shoreline the line separating land and water, that fluctuates as water rises and falls.
shott see CHOTT.
shrubland land covered by shrubs.
sidehill the side or slope of a hill.
sierra a ridge of mountain and craggy rocks, with a serrated or irregular outline.
sierran relating to a mountain range.
sinkhole a depression in ground surface caused by collapse into a cave below.
sinky of ground, yielding underfoot > SINKIER, SINKIEST.
skaw see SCAW.
skerry a small rocky island. [ON sker].
slade a little valley or dell.
sleech slimy mud; a mudflat.
slickenside a polished and smoothly striated rock surface that results from friction along a fault plane.
slickensided in the form of a SLICKENSIDE.
slieve a mountain.
slobland a mudflat, reclaimed alluvial land.
slough a quagmire; (verb) to cast off > SLOUGHS, SLOUGHING, SLOUGHED.
sloughy full of sloughs, miry > SLOUGHIER, SLOUGHIEST.
slumpy marshy > SLUMPIER, SLUMPIEST.
snowbelt a region that receives an appreciable amount of snow each year.
snowland land permanently under snow.
snowscape a landscape under snow.
soakaway a depression or pit into which water percolates.
soffioni volcanic steam-holes.
solfatara a volcanic vent emitting only gases.
solfataric relating to a SOLFATARA, a volcanic vent emitting only gases.
sowback an eroded, steeply tilted ridge of resistant rocks with equal slopes on the sides, aka HOGBACK.
spewiness the state of being SPEWY, boggy.
spewy boggy > SPEWIER, SPEWIEST.
spit a tongue of land projecting out to sea; (verb) to emit saliva > SPITS, SPITTING, SPAT; to pierce with a spit > SPITS, SPITTING, SPITTED, SPITTEN.
steppe one of the vast plains in Southeastern Europe and in Asia.
stoss the side of a hill facing upstream.
strandflat in Norway, a gently sloping coastal platform extending seaward.
strata a layer, a stratum > STRATAS. (Plural erroneously taken as singular).
strath a valley of considerable size, through which a river runs.
stratovolcano a composite volcano > a volcano that is composed of alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic material, along with abundant dikes and sills. Viscous, intermediate lava may flow from a central vent > STRATOVOLCANOS or STRATOVOLCANOES.
strond a strand; a beach.
succussive characterized by a shaking motion, especially an up and down movement, and not merely tremulous oscillation; as, the succussive motion in earthquakes.
superterranean above or on surface of earth.
swail a marshy hollow or depression; meadow > SWAILS. Also SWALE.
swale a marshy hollow or depression; meadow. Also SWAIL. (Verb) to scorch, singe > SWALES, SWALING, SWALED. Also SWEAL, SWEEL, SWAYL.
swaly marshy > SWALIER, SWALIEST.
swamp a tract of wet, spongy land; (verb) to inundate > SWAMPS, SWAMPING, SWAMPED.
swampish like a swamp.
swampland swamp country.
swampy like a swamp > SWAMPIER, SWAMPIEST.
swire a hollow between two hills. [OE sweora, neck].
syncline a fold that is convex downwards, or that had such an attitude at some stage of its development. Compare ANTICLINE.
syrtis a patch or area of quicksand > SYRTES.
tableland a plateau.
taiga subarctic Siberian evergreen forest.
talweg thalweg a line following the lowest point of a valley; the middle of a navigable waterway used as boundary line. [Ger. thal (valley) + weg (way)].
taphrogenesis vertical movement of the earth's crust > TAPHROGENESES.
tel tell in Arab lands, a hill or ancient mound formed from the accumulated debris from earlier mud or wattle habitations.
temblor an earthquake or earth tremor > TEMBLORS or TEMBLORES.
tephra a general term for all pyroclastic material, i.e. ash and debris ejected by volcano > TEPHRAS. [Gk. tephra, ashes].
terrain ground, a tract, regarded as a field of view or of operations, or as having some sort of unity or prevailing character.
thalweg see TALWEG.
thwaite a piece of reclaimed wasteland (now only in place-names. [ON thveit].
tideland land which is submerged at high tide.
timberland land covered with trees used for timber.
tombolo a bar of sand or gravel connecting one island with another > TOMBOLOS.
tomo a shaft formed by the action of water on volcanic or limestone rock > TOMOS.
tor a hill.
tumpy hummocky > TUMPIER, TUMPIEST.
tumulose tumulous full of small hills or mounds; hilly.
tumulosity the state of being TUMULOSE, full of small hills or mounds.
tumulous see TUMULOSE.
tundra a vast treeless zone lying between the ice cap and the timber line of North America and Eurasia and having a permanently frozen subsoil.
undercliff a subordinate cliff on a shore, consisting of material that has fallen from the higher cliff above.
upland the higher land of a region.
uplandish of or pertaining to uplands; dwelling on high lands.
urman swampy pine forest.
vae voe in Orkney or Shetland, a bay or creek.
vale a broad VALLEY.
valley a depression of the earth's surface.
valleyed having VALLEYS.
varve a seasonal layer of sediment deposited in still water, used in establishing Ice Age chronology.
varved stratified in VARVES, seasonal layers of sediment deposited in still water, used in establishing Ice Age chronology.
vega a low fertile plain; a tobacco field.
veld veldt open grassland > VELDTS. [Afrikaans veld, from Dutch veld, field].
versant the general slope of a mountain.
vlei vly low-lying wet ground, a swamp.
voe see VAE.
volcanian vulcanian volcanic.
volcanic vulcanic pertaining to, of the nature of, produced or caused by a volcano.
volcanicity the state of being VOLCANIC.
volcanise volcanize to subject to the action of volcanic heat.
volcanism volcanic power or action; volcanicity.
volcanist vulcanist one versed in the history and phenomena of volcanoes.
volcanize see VOLCANISE.
volcano a centre of eruption of subterranean matter > VOLCANOS or VOLCANOES.
volcanology vulcanology the study of volcanoes.
vulcanian see VOLCANIAN.
vulcanic see VOLCANIC.
vulcanism a term given to processes whereby magma is extruded on to the earth's surface.
vulcanist see VOLCANIST.
vulcanology see VOLCANOLOGY.
wadi wady the dry bed of a torrent; a river valley > WADIS, WADIES.
wagmoire a quagmire.
washaway an erosion of the earth's surface due to running water.
washland an area periodically flooded by a river.
wasteland a desolate, barren area.
waterside the edge of a sea, lake, etc, a shore.
wayboard a thin geological seam separating larger strata.