ABSP - Landscape & Landforms
Association of British Scrabble Players

Landscape & Landforms


Now updated for CSW15. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.


acclivity an upward slope.
aiguille (Fr.) a needlelike peak of rock.
ait a small island in a river.
alluvial relating to running water activities or deposits; (noun) soil composed of alluvium.
alluvion (Lat.) land gradually gained from the sea by the washing up of sand and earth.
alluvium (Lat.) land gradually gained from the sea by the washing up of sand and earth.
alp a mountain.
altiplano (Spanish) a high plateau in Andes.
alvar (Swedish) an area of exposed limestone.
anaclinal of valleys, progressing in a direction opposite to the dip of the surrounding rock strata.
antar (Shakesp.) a cave.
anticlinal of or like an anticline; (noun) an anticlinal fold, axis, crest, or line; a line whence strata dip in opposite directions.
anticline a fold that is convex upward, or that had such an attitude at some stage of its development.
anticlinorium an arch-shaped group of anticlines and synclines.
antidune a sandhill that forms a steep slope against the direction of the prevailing current.
antre (Shakesp.) a cave.
archipelagian of, relating to, or located in an archipelago.
archipelagic of, relating to, or located in an archipelago.
archipelago a chain or set of islands grouped together.
areic of an area of the earth with little surface drainage.
arete (Fr.) a narrow, saw-toothed mountain ridge developed by glacier erosion in adjacent cirques.
arroyo (Spanish) a dry desert gully.
as in whatever way; (conj.) because, since; (noun) a Norse god a gravel ridge or kame a Roman coin
ashfall volcanic ash.
atoll a coral island consisting of a reef surrounding a lagoon.
avalanche a generic term for any slide of snow, ice, and debris; (verb) to descend as an avalanche.
backcountry a remote rural region.
backveld (Afrikaans) country remote from towns.
badland a barren, hilly area.
bahada (Spanish) a broad, sloping depositional deposit caused by the coalescing of alluvial fans.
bajada (Spanish) a broad, sloping depositional deposit caused by the coalescing of alluvial fans.
bankside the slope of a bank, esp of the bank of a steam.
barchan (Turkestan) a crescent-shaped dune.
barchane (Turkestan) a crescent-shaped dune.
barkan (Turkestan) a crescent-shaped dune.
barkhan (Turkestan) a crescent-shaped dune.
barranca (Spanish) a ravine caused by heavy rains or a watercourse.
barranco (Spanish) a ravine caused by heavy rains or a watercourse.
barren devoid of vegetation (noun) a plateau with shrubs but no timber
bayou (Am. Ind.) the marshy offshoot of a lake or river.
beach the shore of a sea or of a lake, esp when sandy or pebbly (verb) to drive ashore
beachfront a strip of land that fronts a beach.
beachy having a beach or beaches.
ben (Gaelic) a mountain.
benchland a former wave-cut shore of a sea or lake.
benchy of a hillside, hollowed out in benches.
berg (Afrikaans) a hill or mountain in S. Africa.
bergfall (Ger.) a fall of mountain rock.
bergmehl (Ger.) a powdery deposit of diatom frustules, aka kieselguhr.
bergschrund (Ger.) a crevasse formed where a glacier or snowfield moves away from a mountain wall.
blowout an irregular depression excavated by wind, usually in previously deposited blown sand.
bog a marsh (verb) to sink into a bog
bogginess the state of being boggy.
boggish boggy.
boggy like a bog.
boghole a natural hole in the ground with a swampy bottom.
bogland marshland.
bolson (Spanish) a basin-shaped depression surrounded by mountains, esp in the southern US and Mexico.
bommie an outcrop of coral reef.
boonies remote, undeveloped country.
boschveld (Afrikaans) veld made up largely of woodland.
bottomland (US) alluvial deposits.
bottomset as in bottomset bed, fine sediment deposited at the foot of a growing delta. No -S.
bouldery of a landscape, characterized by boulders.
brae (Scots) a steep bank beside a river valley.
braeheid (Scots) the summit of a hill or slope.
brushland an area covered with brush growth.
bundu (Bantu) a remote uncultivated region.
bushland land covered by bush.
bushveld (Afrikaans) veld made up largely of woodland.
butte (Fr.) an isolated hill rising abruptly from the surrounding area, having steep sides and a flat top.
cajon (Spanish) a steep canyon.
caldera (Spanish) a large, basin-shaped volcanic depression, more or less circular in form.
callow unfledged; inexperienced CALLOWLY; (noun) an alluvial flat
callowly (Adv.) CALLOW, unfledged, inexperienced.
campagna (Ital.) an open level tract of country; esp "Campagna di Roma", the extensive undulating plain which surrounds Rome.
campo (Spanish) an area of open grassland in S. America.
canada (Spanish) a narrow canyon.
canyon (Spanish) a deep gorge or ravine.
carse (Scots) alluvial lowland beside a river.
cave a hollow in a rock; (verb) to hollow out.
cavern a large cave; (verb) to hollow out as in a cavern.
cay a small low island of coral, sand etc.
cenote (Mayan) a deep natural hole in the ground with a pool at the bottom, esp in the Yucatan peninsula, often used by the Mayas as a place of sacrifice.
cerrado an area of wooded savanna in S. America.
champaign an expanse of level, open country, a plain.
chasm a deep cleft in the earth.
chasmal of or like a chasm.
chasmed having chasms.
chasmic of or like a chasm.
chasmy abounding in chasms.
chersonese a peninsula.
chott (Arabic) a shallow saline lake of northern Africa; the dried bed of such a lake.
cirque (Fr.) a bowl-shaped depression on a mountain that is carved out by an Alpine glacier.
cleeve (Dial.) a cliff, a hillside.
cleuch (Scots) a ravine, a gully.
cleugh (Scots) a ravine, a gully.
cleve (Dial.) a cliff, a hillside.
cliff a high, steep face of rock.
cliffed having cliffs.
clifflike like a cliff.
cliffside the side of a cliff.
clifftop the top of a cliff.
cliffy having cliffs, craggy.
clift a cliff.
clifted broken into cliffs.
clifty broken into cliffs.
clint a block in a limestone pavement.
clough a ravine, a gully.
coastal pertaining to or located near a seashore.
coastally (Adv.) COASTAL, pertaining to a coast.
coastland land along the coast.
coastline the line or boundary of a coast.
col a pass in a mountain range.
combe a short deep valley; a hollow in a hillside.
continent temperate, able to restrain (noun) a vast landmass not broken up by seas
coomb a short deep valley; a hollow in a hillside.
coombe a short deep valley; a hollow in a hillside.
corcass (Irish) in Ireland, a salt-marsh, or land susceptible to flooding by a river.
cordillera (Spanish) a mountain ridge or chain.
cordilleran relating to a cordillera, a mountain ridge or chain.
corrie a round hollow in a hillside.
coste (Spenser) a coast.
coteau (Fr.) uplands; higher ground of a region.
coulee (Fr.) a lava-flow; a rocky ravine.
couloir (Fr.) a steep mountainside gorge.
cove a small inlet of the sea, a bay; (verb) to form or provide with an architectural cove.
covelet a small cove.
crag a rough steep rock.
cragged full of crags, or steep, broken rocks.
craggedness the state of being cragged, full of crags.
craggily (Adv.) CRAGGY, rugged, full of crags.
cragginess the quality of being craggy.
craggy rugged, full of crags.
craig (Scots) a crag, in the sense of cliff or neck.
crater the bowllike mouth of a volcano; (verb) to make a crater in.
craterlet a small crater.
craterlike like a crater.
craterous pertaining to, or resembling, a crater.
craton (Greek) a large, relatively stable section of earth's crust, forming the basis of a continent or ocean.
cratonic relating to a craton, a large, relatively stable section of earth's crust.
creston (Spanish) an outcrop.
crevasse a deep crevice or open fracture in glacier ice; (verb) to make a crevasse in.
crustal relating to a crust, esp the earth's.
cuesta (Spanish) a geological feature, gentle slope on one side, cliff on the other.
cutbank a steep stream bank.
cwm (Welsh) a valley.
dale a valley.
dargle (Scott) a dell.
debouchure (Fr.) the mouth of a river or strait.
declivity a descending slope.
deglaciated showing deglaciation, the melting of ice due to the retreat of a glacier.
deglaciation the melting of ice due to the retreat of a glacier.
dell a small, retired valley.
delta the often triangular-shaped alluvial deposition area at the mouth of a river.
deltaic relating to a delta.
deltic relating to a delta.
dene a sandy tract or dune by the seashore.
desertic like a desert, arid and barren.
diapir an anticlinal fold in which the overlying rock has been pierced by material from beneath.
diapiric of or like diapir, an anticlinal fold in which the overlying rock has been pierced by material from beneath.
diatreme a volcanic vent produced by gaseous explosions.
diluvial of, relating to, or brought about by a flood.
diluvian of, relating to, or brought about by a flood.
dimble a deep narrow wooded valley.
dingle a deep narrow wooded valley, a dell.
djebel (Arabic) a hill, a range of mountains.
doab (Urdu) a tongue or tract of land included between two rivers; as, the doab between the Ganges and the Jumna.
dolina (Russian) a typically funnel-shaped basin in a karstic region.
doline (Russian) a typically funnel-shaped basin in a karstic region.
donga (Zulu) a gully made by soil erosion.
downland a rolling treeless upland.
downwarp a broad surface depression.
droke (Canadian) a valley with steeply sloping sides.
drumlin a long hill formed by glacial retreat.
dryland an arid region.
dune a hill of sand.
duneland an area of dunes.
dunelike like a dune.
earthfall a landslide.
ejecta material ejected esp from a volcano.
embayment a bay; a recess in a coastline forming a bay.
embog to bog down.
englacial embedded in, carried in or running through a glacier.
englacially (Adv.) ENGLACIAL, embedded in, carried in or running through a glacier.
eremic of or belonging to deserts.
erupt to break out or through, eg of a volcano.
eruption the action of a volcano.
escar a long narrow ridge of gravel deposited by a glacial stream.
escarp a scarp or sudden slope; (verb) to make into a scarp.
eskar a long narrow ridge of gravel deposited by a glacial stream.
esker a long narrow ridge of gravel deposited by a glacial stream.
eugeosynclinal of or like a eugeosyncline.
eugeosyncline a narrow rapidly subsiding geosyncline usually with volcanic materials mingled with clastic sediments.
everglade a swampy grassland, esp in southern Florida.
eyot a small island in a river.
faultline a surface along which faults have occurred, or are likely to occur.
fen wet land with alkaline, neutral, or only slightly acid peaty soil.
fenland marshy ground.
fennish abounding in fens; fenny.
fiord (Norwegian) a coastal valley which was sculpted by glacial action.
firn (Ger.) granular ice formed by the recrystallization of snow, aka neve.
firth a fjord, inlet.
fjeld (Norwegian) a high, barren Scandinavian plateau.
fjord (Norwegian) a coastal valley which was sculpted by glacial action.
fjordic of or like a fjord.
flatland land lacking significant variation in elevation.
floodplain an area bordering a stream over which water spreads when the stream tops its channel banks.
flybelt a belt of country infested by tsetse fly.
foothill a minor elevation below a higher mountain or range.
foreland a headland.
foreshore that part of the shore that lies between the low and high tide marks.
fumarole a hole in a volcanic region from which hot gases and vapors issue.
fumarolic of or like a fumarole, a hole in a volcanic region from which hot gases and vapors issue.
fumerole a hole in a volcanic region from which hot gases and vapors issue.
fynbos (Afrikaans) in S. Africa, an area of low shrubs.
garigue (Fr.) an uncultivated open scrubland of the Mediterranean region.
garrigue (Fr.) an uncultivated open scrubland of the Mediterranean region.
gasfield a region in which natural gas occurs.
geanticlinal of or like a geanticline, a large upward fold.
geanticline a large upward fold.
geest alluvial matter on the surface of land, not of recent origin.
geo a gully or creek.
geosynclinal of or like a geosyncline.
geosyncline a downwarping of the Earth's crust.
geyser (Icelandic) a type of thermal spring which ejects water intermittently with considerable force; (verb) to eject jets of water and steam.
ghat (Hindi) in India, a mountain pass; a landing stage; a place for cremation.
ghaut (Hindi) in India, a mountain pass; a landing stage; a place for cremation.
ghilgai (Aborig.) a saucer-shaped depression forming a natural reservoir.
ghyll a narrow ravine.
gilgai (Aborig.) a saucer-shaped depression forming a natural reservoir.
gio a gully or creek.
glacial very cold (noun) a glacial period
glacialist a person who studies the geological effect of ice.
glacially (Adv.) GLACIAL, very cold.
glaciation the formation, advance and retreat of glaciers and the results of these activities.
glacier a huge mass of ice.
glaciered having a glacier or glaciers.
glen a narrow valley with a stream, often with trees.
glenlike like a glen.
goe a gully or creek.
goyle (Dial.) a ravine.
graben (Ger.) a rift valley.
grassland a habitat dominated by grass.
grike (ON) a crevice in a limestone pavement.
grot a grotto.
grotto a cavern.
grottoed having a grotto.
grough a deep gully in a peat moor area.
gryke (ON) a crevice in a limestone pavement.
gumlands in Australia, infertile land from which the original kauri gum has been removed or burnt.
guyot a flat-topped underwater mountain of volcanic origin.
hagg (Scots) broken ground in a moss or bog, a place from which peat has been dug.
hamada (Arabic) a desert plateau of bedrock.
hammada (Arabic) a desert plateau of bedrock.
haugh (Scots) a low-lying meadow by the side of a river.
headland a cape; a promontory.
headwall a steep rockface at the end of a cirque.
heath an evergreen shrub.
heathland barren open country, esp covered with ericaceous and other low shrubs.
heathless without heath.
heathlike like a heath.
heathy covered with heath; of the nature of heath.
heuch (Scots) a crag, a steep-sided valley.
heugh (Scots) a crag, a steep-sided valley.
highland an elevated region.
highveld a high altitude grassland region of E. S. Africa.
hill a high mass of land, smaller than a mountain (verb) to rise into a mound
hillcrest the top of a hill.
hilliness the state of being hilly.
hilling tobogganing down a slope of ice.
hillock a small hill.
hillocked having hillocks.
hillocky full of hillocks.
hillside the side of a hill.
hillslope the slope of a hill.
hilltop the top of a hill.
hilly like a hill.
hogback an eroded, steeply tilted ridge of resistant rocks with equal slopes on the sides.
hogh (Spenser) a hoe, promontory.
holm a river island.
hommock (Arch.) a ridge in an ice field.
hornito (Spanish) a low volcanic mound.
horst (Ger.) a mass of the earth's crust that lies between two faults and is higher than the surrounding land.
horste (Ger.) a mass of the earth's crust that lies between two faults and is higher than the surrounding land.
how in what manner; (noun) a low hill.
hummock a pile or ridge of ice (verb) to make hummocks on
icecap a small ice sheet.
icecapped having an icecap, a small ice sheet.
icefall a steep part of a glacier resembling a frozen waterfall.
icefield an expanse of ice eg on a glacier.
impolder (Dutch) to make a polder of.
inselberg (Ger.) an isolated mountain or hill rising abruptly from its surrounding, aka monadnock.
interfluve an area between two rivers that flow in the same direction.
interfluvial between two rivers flowing in same direction.
intervale a low level tract of land, esp along a river.
island a mass of land (not a continent) surrounded with water; (verb) to set or dot with or as with islands.
islet a small island.
isleted having islets.
isthmic of or like an isthmus.
isthmoid of or like an isthmus.
isthmus (Lat.) a narrow neck of land joining two land masses.
jebel (Arabic) a hill, a range of mountains.
jungle land covered with dense tropical vegetation.
jungled abounding in jungle.
junglelike like a jungle.
jungly of or relating to jungles.
kaim (Scots) a comb; a ridge or mound of sand and gravel deposited on or near a glacier.
kame (Scots) a comb; a ridge or mound of sand and gravel deposited on or near a glacier.
karoo (Hottentot) a high inland pastoral tableland.
karroo (Hottentot) a high inland pastoral tableland.
karst (Ger.) a landscape composed of limestone features including sinkholes, caves, and underground streams.
karstic of or like karst, a landscape composed of limestone features including sinkholes, caves, and underground streams.
karstification the process of becoming karstified.
karstify to make into karst, a landscape composed of limestone features including sinkholes, caves, and underground streams.
khor (Arabic) a dry watercourse; a ravine.
khud (Hindi) in India, a pit, hollow, ravine.
kipp (Scots) anything beaked; a pointed hill.
kloof (Afrikaans) a deep ravine in S. Africa.
knickpoint a break of slope in a river profile, esp where a new curve of erosion arising from rejuvenation intersects an earlier curve.
knoll a small hill (verb) an obsolete form of knell
knolly like a knoll.
knowe a small hill, a knoll.
kop (S. Afr.) a hill.
kopje (Afrikaans) a low hill.
koppie (Afrikaans) a low hill.
kyle (Gaelic) a narrow strait.
lahar (Javanese) a mudflow composed chiefly of pyroclastic material on the flanks of a volcano.
laich (Scots) a piece of low-lying ground; a hollow.
laigh (Scots) low (noun) a piece of low-lying ground; a hollow
lakefront the front of a lake.
lakeland scenery with lakes.
lande (Fr.) a heathy plain or sandy tract, esp in S.W. France.
landform a geological feature.
landmass a large continuous area of land, as opposed to seas or islands.
landscape the appearance of the area of land which the eye can view at once; (verb) to create a landscape.
landskip (Arch.) landscape; (verb) to landscape.
landslidden (PaP.) LANDSLIDE, to win a landslide victory.
landslide a fall of land or rock from a hillside or cliff; (verb) to win a landslide victory.
landslip the fall of a mass of earth.
lantskip (Milton) landscape.
lapillus (Lat.) a small stone ejected by volcanic eruption.
laund (Shakesp.) a glade, a grassy place.
lauwine (Ger.) an avalanche.
lava magma that has been extruded out on to the earth's surface.
lavaform like lava.
lavalike like lava.
lawine (Ger.) an avalanche.
liman the deposit of slime at the mouth of a river.
litoral pertaining to or on the seashore.
littoral pertaining to or on the seashore; (noun) a shore region.
llano (Spanish) an extensive plain with or without vegetation.
logan a rocking-stone.
lowland an area of land lying lower than the adjacent country.
lowveld (Afrikaans) the lower altitude areas of the eastern Transvaal.
maar (Ger.) a volcanic crater without a cone, usually filled by a lake.
machair (Gaelic) a low-lying sandy beach, esp in the Hebrides.
magma molten or partially molten rock material.
magmatic of or like magma, molten or partially molten rock material.
mamelon (Fr.) a rounded hill or protuberance.
maremma (Ital.) seaside marshland; an Italian sheepdog.
marish (Obs.) a marsh.
marsh a tract of low, wet land.
marshed having a marsh.
marshiness the state of being marshy.
marshland low poorly drained land that is sometimes flooded and often lies at the edge of lakes, streams, etc.
marshlike like a marsh.
marshy like marsh.
maskeg (Am. Ind.) a swamp, bog or marsh.
massif (Fr.) a large mountain-mass; a compact group of mountain heights.
meadowland land that is or is used for meadow.
merse (Scots) a low flat marshland.
mesa (Spanish) a flat-topped land formation with steep sides, bigger than a butte but smaller than a plateau.
meseta (Spanish) a plateau, esp that of central Spain.
mofette (Fr.) a volcanic opening in the earth emitting carbon dioxide.
moffette (Fr.) a volcanic opening in the earth emitting carbon dioxide.
molasse soft sediment produced by the erosion of mountain ranges in the final stage of mountain building.
monadnock a mountain or rocky mass that has resisted erosion and stands isolated in an essentially level area, aka inselberg.
montane mountainous; mountain-dwelling; (noun) the lowest vegetation belt of a mountain.
monticle a little hill.
monticule (Fr.) a secondary volcanic cone.
monticulus a little hill.
moorish having the characteristics of a moor or heath.
moorland a tract of marshy land.
moory of or pertaining to moors.
morainal of or pertaining to a moraine.
moraine (Fr.) a landform made largely of glacial till.
morainic of or pertaining to a moraine.
morass a very wet or muddy area of ground.
morassy like a morass, marshy.
morro (Spanish) a rounded hill or headland.
mossland wet, peaty land.
motu (Maori) a small reef island in the Pacific.
moulin (Fr.) a nearly vertical, cylindrical shaft or cavity worn in a glacier, carved by melted surface water falling through a crack in the ice.
mountain a large, natural elevation of the earth's surface.
mountained having mountains.
mountainous having mountains.
mountainously (Adv.) MOUNTAINOUS, having mountains.
mountainousness the state of being mountainous.
mountainside the side of a mountain.
mountaintop the summit of a mountain.
mountainy mountainous.
moutonnee (Fr.) of a rock, rounded by the action of a glacier.
moya volcanic mud.
mudbank a sloping area of mud alongside a body of water.
mudflat a level tract alternately covered and left bare by the tide.
mudhole a place that stays damp and muddy.
muir (Scots) a moor.
muskeg (Am. Ind.) a swamp, bog or marsh.
nala (Hindi) a ravine, a watercourse.
nalla (Hindi) a ravine, a watercourse.
nallah (Hindi) a ravine, a watercourse.
naze a headland or cape.
nek (S. Afr.) a col, a pass in a mountain range.
ness a headland.
neve (Fr.) old compressed snow, aka firn.
nickpoint a break of slope in a river profile, esp where a new curve of erosion arising from rejuvenation intersects an earlier curve.
nondesert not related to or living in a desert.
nonvolcanic not volcanic.
noup (Obs.) in the Shetlands, a crag, a steep headland.
nulla (Hindi) a ravine, a watercourse.
nullah (Hindi) a ravine, a watercourse.
nunatak (Inuit) a point of rock appearing above the surface of land ice.
oasis a fertile spot in a desert.
orological of or pertaining to orology.
ose an esker, a narrow ridge of gravel and sand.
outback the remote, uncultivated, and usually uninhabited inland districts of Australia; any remote or sparsely populated region.
outcrop any place where bedrock is visible on the surface of the Earth; (verb) to form an outcrop.
outwash a bed of sand and gravel laid down by glacial melt water.
overfold a fold tilted over so that the dip on both sides of the axis is in the same direction; (verb) of folded strata, to be pushed beyond the vertical, so as to form an overfold.
overwash material carried by glacier streams over a frontal moraine.
oxbow a pronounced meander or horseshoe-shaped loop in a river.
padi (Malay) a rice field.
pahoehoe (Hawaiian) a hardened lava with a smooth or ropy surface.
pakahi (Maori) acid land unfit for cultivation.
pakihi (Maori) acid land unfit for cultivation.
pali (Hawaiian) a cliff in Hawaii.
palsa (Finnish) a landform of subarctic regions.
paludal of marshes.
paludic of marshes.
paludinal of marshes.
paludine of marshes.
paludinous of marshes.
paludose marshy; living in marshes.
paludous marshy; living in marshes.
palustral of marshes, inhabiting marshes.
palustrian of marshes, inhabiting marshes.
palustrine of marshes, inhabiting marshes.
pampa (Quechua) a vast treeless plain in S. America.
pampas (Quechua) a vast treeless plain in S. America.
paramo (Spanish) a bare windswept elevated plain in S. America.
peak the pointed end or highest point of anything (verb) to reach a maximum
peakish of or relating to a peak.
peatary a region, bog or moor covered with peat.
peatery a region, bog or moor covered with peat.
peatland an area of land consisting of peat bogs.
peneplain a low gently, rolling landscape produced by long-continued erosion.
peneplanation the state of being a peneplain.
peneplane a low gently, rolling landscape produced by long-continued erosion.
peninsula a strip of land jutting out into water, a near-island.
peninsular relating to a peninsula.
peninsulate to form into a peninsula.
periglacial bordering a glacier.
petary a region, bog or moor covered with peat.
phrygana (Mod. Gr.) an uncultivated open scrubland of the Mediterranean region, aka garigue.
picacho (Spanish) an isolated peak of a hill.
piedmont an area of land formed or lying at the foot of a mountain or mountain range.
pindan (Aborig.) a desert region of Western Australia.
pineland land on which pine trees grow.
pingo (Inuit) a cone-shaped mound with an ice core.
plage (Fr.) a fashionable beach; a bright area on the sun.
plateau (Fr.) a flat highland (verb) to level out
platteland (Afrikaans) rural districts.
playa (Spanish) a basin which becomes a shallow lake after heavy rain, and dries out again.
pocosen (Am. Ind.) an upland swamp of the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S.
pocosin (Am. Ind.) an upland swamp of the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S.
pocoson (Am. Ind.) an upland swamp of the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S.
poechore a semiarid region.
polder (Dutch) an area of low-lying land reclaimed from a body of water (esp in the Netherlands); (verb) to reclaim low-lying land.
polje (Serbo-Croat) a large elliptical depression in karst regions, sometimes containing a marsh or lake.
poort (Afrikaans) a mountain pass.
pothole a hole or basin cut into bedrock of a stream by the abrasive action of pebbles and sand swirled by turbulent stream flow; (verb) to explore (limestone potholes).
prairie an extensive tract of treeless grassland, esp in N. America.
prairied having prairies.
precepit (Shakesp.) a precipice.
precipice a high vertical or nearly vertical cliff or rock face.
precipiced having precipices.
promontory a high point of land or rock projecting into a body of water.
puy a small volcanic cone.
pyroclast ash and other debris ejected by a volcano.
quag a quagmire.
quagginess the state of being quaggy.
quaggy boggy, like a quagmire.
quagmire a bog (verb) to be sunk or stuck in a quagmire
quagmiry like a quagmire.
quicksand a loose watery sand which swallows up anyone who walks on it.
rambla (Spanish) a dry ravine; a broad avenue esp in Barcelona.
ravine a narrow, steep-sided valley.
reedbed a stand of reeds.
reefy full of reefs or rocks.
renosterveld an area of high altitude in S. Africa, having fertile ground.
ria a drowned valley.
ridgeline a line marking or following a ridge.
ridgetop the summit of a ridge.
rillmark a marking produced by water running down a bank or beach.
rimaye (Fr.) a bergschrund, a crevasse formed where a glacier or snowfield moves away from a mountain wall.
rimland an outlying land.
riva (ON) in Shetland, a cleft in rock.
rivage (Fr.) a shore, bank.
riverbank the bank of a river.
riverside the area at the side of a river.
riviera (Ital.) a warm coastal district.
rockslide a fall of rocks down a hillside.
rognon (Fr.) an isolated rock outcrop on a glacier.
sabkha (Arabic) a broad, salt-encrusted coastal plain above the level of normal tides.
sabkhah (Arabic) a broad, salt-encrusted coastal plain above the level of normal tides.
sabkhat (Arabic) a broad, salt-encrusted coastal plain above the level of normal tides.
salina (Spanish) a salt lagoon.
salse (Fr.) a mud volcano.
sandbank a large mass of sand.
sandbar a sandbank, esp one formed at the mouth of a river or harbour.
sandhill a hill of sand.
sandspit a small point of land created by sand dunes.
sault a waterfall or rapid in some rivers; as, the Sault Ste. Marie.
savanna (Spanish) tropical grassland.
savannah (Spanish) tropical grassland.
scabland an area of bare, usually volcanic rock in the NW US that has been deeply channelled by glacial meltwater.
scaw a low cape or headland.
scoria (Lat.) dross or slag from metal-smelting; a slag-like mass of lava.
scrubland land covered by scrub.
seabank a bank beside the sea.
seabeach a beach lying along the sea.
seaboard the line where land and sea meet, the coastline.
seacoast the shore or border of the land adjacent to the sea or ocean.
seamount a volcanic mountain on the seafloor; if flat-topped, it is a guyot.
seashore land bordering on the sea.
seaside the seashore.
seastrand the seashore.
sedgeland land where sedge grows.
seif (Arabic) a long sand-dune lying parallel to the direction of the wind that forms it.
seismism seismic phenomena collectively.
semicirque a semicircular hollow or opening among trees or hills.
semidesert a half desert.
serac (Fr.) a large mass of ice broken off a glacier and remaining behind in a crevasse.
shore the seaward edge of coast between low tide and effective wave action; (verb) to prop up.
shoreline the line separating land and water, that fluctuates as water rises and falls.
shott (Arabic) a shallow saline lake of northern Africa; the dried bed of such a lake.
shrubland land covered by shrubs.
sidehill the side or slope of a hill.
sierra (Spanish) a ridge of mountain and craggy rocks, with a serrated or irregular outline.
sierran relating to a mountain range.
sinkhole a depression in ground surface caused by collapse into a cave below.
sinky yielding underfoot.
skaw a low cape or headland.
skerry (ON) a small rocky island.
slade a little valley or dell.
sleech slimy mud; a mudflat.
slickenside a polished and smoothly striated rock surface that results from friction along a fault plane.
slickensided in the form of a slickenside.
slieve (Irish) a mountain.
slobland a mudflat, reclaimed alluvial land.
slough a quagmire (verb) to cast off
sloughy full of sloughs, miry.
slumpy marshy.
snowbelt a region that receives an appreciable amount of snow each year.
snowland land permanently under snow.
snowscape a landscape under snow.
soakaway a depression or pit into which water percolates.
soffioni (Ital.) volcanic steam-holes.
solfatara (Ital.) a volcanic vent emitting only gases.
solfataric relating to a solfatara, a volcanic vent emitting only gases.
sourveld in S. Africa, a type of grazing characterised by long coarse grass.
sowback an eroded, steeply tilted ridge of resistant rocks with equal slopes on the sides.
spewiness the state of being spewy, boggy.
spewy boggy.
steppe (Russian) one of the vast plains in SE Europe and in Asia.
stoss the side of a hill facing upstream.
strandflat in Norway, a gently sloping coastal platform extending seaward.
strandline the shoreline.
strata (Lat.) a layer, a stratum.
strath (Scots) a valley of considerable size, through which a river runs.
stratovolcano a composite volcano, composed of alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic material, along with abundant dikes and sills.
strond (Spenser) a strand, a beach.
subcontinent a large landmass smaller than a continent.
succussive characterized by a shaking motion, esp an up and down movement.
superterranean above or on surface of earth.
swail a marshy hollow or depression.
swale a marshy hollow or depression (verb) to scorch, singe
swaly marshy.
swamp a tract of wet spongy land (verb) to inundate
swampiness the state of being swampy.
swampish like a swamp.
swampland swamp country.
swampy like a swamp.
sweetveld in S. Africa, a type of grazing characterised by sweet grass.
swire a hollow between two hills.
syntexis (Greek) the alteration of magma by the melting or assimilation of another rock.
syrtis (Milton) a patch or area of quicksand.
tableland a plateau.
taiga (Russian) subarctic Siberian evergreen forest.
talweg (Ger.) a line following the lowest point of a valley; the middle of a navigable waterway used as boundary line.
tel in Arab lands, a hill or ancient mound formed from the accumulated debris from earlier mud or wattle habitations.
tephra (Greek) ash and debris ejected by a volcano.
terrain (Fr.) ground, a tract, regarded as a field of view or of operations.
thalweg (Ger.) a line following the lowest point of a valley; the middle of a navigable waterway used as boundary line.
thwaite (ON) a piece of reclaimed wasteland.
tideland (US) land which is submerged at high tide.
timberland (US) land covered with trees used for timber.
tombolo (Ital.) a bar of sand or gravel connecting one island with another.
tomo (Maori) a shaft formed by the action of water on volcanic or limestone rock.
tor a hill, a rocky height.
treeline the line marking the altitude above which trees will not grow.
tremblor an earth tremor.
tumpy hummocky.
tumulose full of small hills or mounds; hilly.
tumulosity the state of being tumulose, full of small hills or mounds.
tumulous full of small hills or mounds; hilly.
tundra (Lapp) a vast treeless zone lying between the ice cap and the timber line of N. America and Eurasia and having a permanently frozen subsoil.
undercliff a subordinate cliff on a shore, consisting of material that has fallen from the higher cliff above.
updoming the upward deformation of a rock mass into a dome shape.
upland the higher land of a region.
uplandish (Obs.) rustic, rural.
upwrap in geology, an anticline.
urman (Russian) swampy pine forest.
vae in Orkney or Shetland, a bay or creek.
vale a broad valley.
valley a depression of the earth's surface.
valleyed having valleys.
varve a seasonal layer of sediment deposited in still water, used in establishing Ice Age chronology.
varved stratified in varves, seasonal layers of sediment deposited in still water, used in establishing Ice Age chronology.
vega (Spanish) a low fertile plain; a tobacco field.
veld (Afrikaans) open grassland.
veldt (Afrikaans) open grassland.
versant the general slope of a mountain.
vesicular having vesicles eg of a rock.
vesicularly (Adv.) VESICULAR, having vesicles.
vlei (Afrikaans) low-lying ground where a shallow lake forms in the wet season.
vly (Afrikaans) low-lying ground where a shallow lake forms in the wet season.
voe in Orkney or Shetland, a bay or creek.
volcanian relating to a volcanic eruption, esp one that discharges gases and ash but little or no lava.
volcanic of or like a volcano (noun) a volcanic rock
volcanically (Adv.) VOLCANIC, of or like a volcano.
volcanicity the state of being volcanic.
volcanise to subject to the action of volcanic heat.
volcanism volcanic power or action.
volcanist one versed in the history and phenomena of volcanoes.
volcanize to subject to the action of volcanic heat.
volcano (Ital.) a centre of eruption of subterranean matter.
volcanologic relating to volcanology.
volcanological relating to volcanology.
volcanologist one who studies volcanology.
volcanology the study of volcanoes.
vulcanian relating to a volcanic eruption, esp one that discharges gases and ash but little or no lava.
vulcanic of or like a volcano.
vulcanicity the state of being vulcanic.
vulcanism volcanic power or action.
vulcanist one versed in the history and phenomena of volcanoes.
vulcanological relating to vulcanology.
vulcanologist one who studies vulcanology.
vulcanology the study of volcanoes.
wadi (Arabic) the dry bed of a torrent; a river valley.
wady (Arabic) the dry bed of a torrent; a river valley.
wagmoire (Spenser) a quagmire.
washaway an erosion of the earth's surface due to running water.
washland an area periodically flooded by a river.
wasteland a desolate, barren area.
waterside the edge of a sea, lake, etc, a shore.
wayboard a thin geological seam separating larger strata.
wetland land containing much soil moisture.
wilderness a tract or region uncultivated and uninhabited by human beings.
wildland land completely uncultivated.
wold an open tract of country.
woodland land covered with trees.
yardang (Turkish) a ridge formed by wind erosion parallel to prevailing winds.



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